http://www.engvid.com Do you like studying, learning new things, practicing your English, etc.? Do you stop when you see ‘etc.’ and wonder what it means? This lesson will look at the little things in English, such as how to show a list continues without actually continuing it. You’ll learn how and when to use ‘etc.’, the ellipsis mark (…), as well as ‘and so on’. Take the quiz at: http://www.engvid.com/etc-so-on-ellipsis/
Hi again. Welcome to www.engvid.com. I’m Adam. Nice to see you again. Today, I want to talk about a topic that is a little bit unusual. Everybody thinks that English is all about vocabulary, or grammar, or punctuation, things like that.
There’s little things, too, that you need to worry about, and people often ask me about these things in particular: ", and so on", "etc.", "…", three dots, sometimes four, I’ll explain, "blah, blah, blah", and "blah". Okay? Not everyday stuff. I mean, every day, you’re going to see it all the time, but this is not something that ESL teachers will teach you, it’s not something that you will really learn in books, so here it is; I’m going to explain it to you. Okay?
First, "and so on". First of all, notice I put a comma before it. Why? Because this will always come at the end of a sentence or after a list of some sort. Okay? When we put ", and so on", we mean: and we continue with the same examples. Right? So you ask me: what kind of foods do I like? Well, I like pizza, I like hamburgers, I like fish and chips, you know, and so on. What does that ", and so on" mean? Does that mean that I like egg white only omelettes with like asparagus and broccoli? No. Why? Because I listed hamburger, junk food; pizza, junk food; fish and chips, junk food. So when I say: ", and so on" means and more examples like the ones I just said. Right? So it’s very important to remember. Many of my students, they just throw ", and so on" all the time. Talking, talking, talking, "and so on". And so on, what? I don’t understand. Right? So you have to be careful. This has a very specific use. You’re continuing the same list or the same idea.
Next: "etc." Usually, you will see it like this: "etc." Now, how to pronounce. This is the actual word when you open it up: "etcetera". Now, some native speakers will say: "et-cet-era", "etcetera". Most will say: "ek-se-chra". That’s what it sounds like when most native speakers say it. "Etcetera". Correct, "etcetera", but both are acceptable. Now, what does etcetera mean? It means: "and so on". It means the exact same thing as "and so on". Again, you’re continuing the list that was started before. Right? Now, people often ask: how do I use it in writing? Usually, you can… If it comes at the end of a sentence, you put the period, that’s it. But if it comes in the middle of the sentence… So: "I like pizza, I like hamburgers, fish and chips, etc., but I also like…" etc. There you go. So I’m writing whatever I write, whatever I write, etc., but I also like other things. Right? So, it’s a little bit confusing, you got period and a comma. The period goes for the shortened; the comma goes for the sentence. Okay? Not that important, but if you want to write it correctly, that’s how you do it.
Next, we have three dots. These are called ellipses. You don’t necessarily need to know this word "ellipses", but just understand that it’s referring to this. What does three dots means? "And so on". Same idea. Right? But this is… Usually, you see this in writing. Instead of writing three words, you just put three dots, because it’s easier, people understand it. But also remember sometimes it’s used just as a pause. Okay? So, person "A" says: "Well…, I think…" You ask: "What do you think about climate change?" for example. "Well…" I’m thinking, thinking, thinking; dot, dot, dot. "I think that…" Etcetera. Now, "And so on" means… "And so on" means the idea is going to continue. Okay? I’m about to give you my opinion. Right? This is in writing. Some people will actually say: "Dot, dot, dot", but they’re trying to be dramatic or cool. If you saw the movie Trainspotting, you heard it there, "dot, dot, dot". Very dramatic scene. I liked it. Okay? But basically so far, all more or less the same idea.